Cervix uteri and seven or eight related things

For these and other terms, see the Alphabet of bioZhena at /2007/11/28/the-alphabet-of-biozhena/

Rerum Naturare Feminina. A Woman’s Natural Thing. In the lingua franca of the ancients.

The reader of this bioZhena’s Weblog article will or should be well aware that a woman’s menstrual cycle lengths are quite variable, as is the timing of her ovulation within those menstrual cycles. For evidence of this variability, see another blog post at https://biozhena.wordpress.com/2010/03/07/variability-of-menstrual-cycles-and-of-ovulation-timing/ (opens in new tab/window). Our focus on the cervix uteri is clarified below in this article.


The narrow lower part of the uterus (womb), with an opening that connects the uterus to the vagina. It contains special glands called the crypts that produce mucus, which helps to keep bacteria (and other microbes, including sperm for most of the cycle) out of the uterus and beyond. Sometimes called the neck of the womb, it protrudes into the vagina. The region around the cervical protrusion is known as the vaginal fornix. The sanitary vaginal tampon is inserted so as to reach into the posterior fornix. Likewise the bioZhena sensor. As simple as that.

The cervix is the gateway to the uterus and has a lot of important and challenging roles. It must allow the passage of either sperm (or penis, in some species) at copulation, prevent the entrance of microorganisms before and particularly during pregnancy, and expel the neonate and placenta at parturition (birth). It is a muscular tube that has a very dynamic role in both the menstrual cycle and in forming a tight seal during pregnancy, but opening to form a broad passageway at birth. The multitude of physiological roles of this gateway has caused it to become an important element or focus of the bioZhena technology.

Cervical mucus:

The fluid secreted by the inner walls of the cervical canal and exuded by the cervix. The amount and the properties of the fluid change depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle, e.g., from practically nonexistent during the so-called dry days early in the cycle to the relatively copious amounts of clear slippery fluid during the fertile days.

Cervical mucus is essential for the ability of the sperm to function properly: sperm survival and sperm transport within the woman’s reproductive system are critically dependent upon the presence of a healthy mucus.

To quote a noted expert, Professor Erik Odeblad: “Complications arising from the use of the Pill are very frequent. Infertility after its use for 7-15 years is a very serious problem. S crypts are very sensitive to normal and cyclical stimulation by natural oestrogens, and the Pill causes atrophy of these crypts. Fertility is impaired since the movement of sperm cells up the canal is reduced. Treatment is difficult.” He also wrote: “After 3 to 15 months of contraceptive pill use, there is a greater loss of the S crypt cells than can be replaced … A pregnancy rejuvenates the cervix by 2-3 years, but for each year the Pill is taken, the cervix ages by an extra year.” Web reference:http://www.billings-ovulation-method.org.au/act/pill.html .

Cervical mucus method:

A method of determining a woman’s fertility by observing changes in her cervical mucus. The Billings ovulation method and the Creighton model ovulation method are both cervical mucus methods.

Cervical palpation:

Feeling the cervix with the middle finger of the thus trained woman-user of FAM or NFP to determine cervical position. This is not a widely used procedure, and is not involved in the Billings and Creighton ovulation methods.

Cervical position:

Three facets of the cervix (its height, softness and the size of its opening, the cervical os) assessed for fertility significance by specially trained users of this method of NFP or FAM. Not many of those around…


A viewing instrument with a bright light and magnifying lens that is used to examine the vagina and cervix stained with special solutions. Colposcopy: Examination of the vaginal and cervical epithelia by means of a colposcope. [Greek kolpos, vagina, womb + -scopy, suffix that signifies viewing; seeing; observation: as in microscopy. From Greek -skopi, from skopein, to see.] Colposcopy is the diagnostic procedure to evaluate patients whose Pap smear screening produced abnormal cytological smear results.

Billings Ovulation Method (BOM):

An NFP method in which the fertile days are identified exclusively by observations of cervical fluid at the vaginal opening. Developed by the Australian Drs. John and Evelyn Billings. An international survey in 1987 indicated that at least 50 million couples were using the method, and the number is said to be increasing from year to year. It has also been estimated that 80% of natural family planning world-wide is now the Billings ovulation method. In 1978 an international conference in Melbourne was attended by delegates from 48 countries. See also the cervical mucus method.

Creighton model ovulation method:

An NFP method of vaginal-cervical mucus self-evaluation according to criteria developed by Thomas Hilgers, M.D. at St. Louis and Creighton Universities. The criteria are called the vaginal discharge recording system (VDRS) and require that women check for the mucus by wiping the outside of their vaginas with bathroom tissue, checking the mucus for color, stretch and consistency. The last day of mucus that is either clear on appearance, stretches an inch or more, and/or causes the sensation of lubrication is called the peak mucus day. The method is similar to the Billings ovulation method.


bioZhena’s method of monitoring the cervix:

And then we have the bioZhena method, with the Ovulona inserted briefly just like a tampon applicator, and taking a reading of the fertility status (most of the time NOT FERTILE = cannot conceive; only 3 days of fertility in each menstrual cycle):


The DIU is or will be an auxiliary add-on


 How the Ovulona will be transformed into a (semi-) permanently worn cervical ring obviating daily insertion is shown in slide 4 of QUICK INTRO 4 SLIDES at

Friendly Technology and Next Generation Design

The natural interest of women in being in charge of their reproductive life leads to the possibility of using the information gathered in the process for additional medical purposes. The Ovulona cyclic profile is the signature of the menstrual-cycle vital sign, which is the result of the illustrated interaction between the female brain and the ovaries – the so-called Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad Feedback Loop (F). (This editing added here in 2016.)

Menstrual cyclic profile signature of the HPG feedback mechanism

To enlarge the image, click https://biozhena.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/menstrual-cyclic-profile-signature-of-the-hpg-feedback-mechanism.jpg

The H-P-G feedback loop (F) gives rise to the menstrual cyclic profile signatures captured by the bioZhena technology.

Here is why the bioZhena technology had to be invented. One way of saying this is: The available means, methods or products, were not good enough. Another way of putting this is to quote from medical literature, as follows.

A symposium on ovulation prediction in the treatment of infertility covered all the phenomena known to be associated with ovulation [reference 9]. Moghissi, who discussed more than 20 measurable parameters that vary during the menstrual cycle, stated the following [reference 8]: “Mid-cycle mucorrhea, ferning, spinnbarkeit, lowered cell content, and viscosity of cervical mucus are used commonly in ovulation detection and as an index of the estrogenic response of cervical epithelium. However, these changes extend over several days … (These changes) do not necessarily indicate ovulation, and are merely an index of the optimal amount of circulating estrogen…”.

In brief, none of the methods determined ovulation with the required accuracy to be useful either as a conception aid or especially for birth control. Here is how our method (monitoring folliculogenesis) does it by generating the multi-featured cyclic profile that includes the definitive ovulation marker after the predictive signals, and here is how this compares with the older techniques. See how inaccurate is the ovulation assessment by the older means available to the users of NFP or FAM (spread over 3 days):

Marquette comparison with LH kit and Peak mucus – right click on the link to open a larger PDF version of the image.

Marquette comparison with LH kit and Peak mucus

In this example, our device detected delayed ovulation while the LH ovulation kit indicated positive for ovulation on two days (not just one) and the mucus assessment (Creighton method) indicated positive one day later. The LH was positive the day before as well as on the day of the ovulation marker (day 17), while the Peak mucus day indicated ovulation one day after the ovulation marker day.

The spread of 3 days is not acceptable, but it is actually quite typical of the uncertainty associated with these older techniques. You know what that means, don’t you, because you know that every day matters. Their lack of accuracy and precision renders the older techniques not good enough – which is where we started.

Cited references:

[8] Kamran S. Moghissi, “Cervical mucus changes and ovulation prediction and detection”, Journal of Reproductive Medicine 31 (Number 8), Supplement, 748 – 753, 1986.

[9] Stephen L. Corson, guest editor, “Ovulation Prediction in the Treatment of Infertility. A Symposium”, Journal of Reproductive Medicine 32 (Number 8), Supplement, 739, 1986.

Review and listen to 3 narrated slides summarizing the bioZhena technology. Contemplate the importance of the cervix uteri.


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3 Responses to “Cervix uteri and seven or eight related things”

  1. Stress and fertility « bioZhena’s Weblog Says:

    […] Watch them in the slide show mode. (To get out of the slide show, you jerk the mouse… remember? (Remember this from the earlier Cervix post /2007/12/16/cervix-uteri-and-seven-or-eight-related-things/?) […]

  2. MerrillIvilyn10 Says:


    […]Cervix uteri and seven or eight related things « bioZhena’s Weblog[…]…

  3. biozhena Says:

    Reblogged this on bioZhena’s Weblog and commented:

    It seems worthwhile to reblog about the basics.

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